Large Animal Toxins:

  • Lead (Old batteries, crankshaft oil, grease)

Symptoms:  Blindness, staggering, bellowing, bloat, diarrhea

  • Urea (Fertilizer, Open lick tanks)

Symptoms:  Muscle tremors, wildly aberrant behavior (agitated, violent),     bloat, inability to breathe, salivation, death within hours

  • Insecticides (organophosphates, arsenicals, metaldehydes)

Symptom:  Colic, diarrhea, muscle tremors, ‘sawhorse stance’, salivation, death from respiratory failure

Toxic Plants:

  • Brackenfern
  • Symptoms:  Bleeding from body orifices (eyes, nose, insect bites), fever.  Usually fatal within 1-3 days


  • Wilted cherry
  • Symptoms:  Usually found dead, respiratory distress, bright red mucous membranes.  Survival over 2-3 hours usually recover


  • Jimsonweed
  • Symptoms:  Trembling, aggressive behavior, convulsions


  • Milkweed
  • Symptoms:  Tremors, ataxia, increased heart rate, increased respiratory rate, collapse, death


  • Oak buds, acorns
  • Symptoms:  Occur only after 75% of kidney cells non-functional.  Weight loss, diarrhea, inappetance, death


  • Poison hemlock
  • Symptoms:  Trembling, weak, slow heart rate, cold extremities, ataxis, coma and death


  • Water hemlock
  • Symptoms:  Violent grand mal seizures, rapid pulse, respiratory rate, salivation, dilated pupils, coma, death often within 1-2 hours


  • Rhododendron/Mountain Laurel
  • Symptoms:  Colic, bloat, diarrhea, mechanical obstruction, often death if untreated


  • White Snakeroot
  • Symptoms:  Ataxia, inappetance, weak, fast heart rate


white snakeroot

  • Japanese Yew
  • Symptoms:  Death….usually found dead in pasture.   Very small amount is deadly

yew japaneseyew

  • Pigweed
  • Symptoms:  symptoms similar to acorn toxicity.  Diarrhea, down cows, bloat, weight loss


  • Sweet Vernalgrass
  • Symptoms:  Very similar to a rat poison, weak, ataxic, pale mucous membranes, respiratory distress (internal bleeding), death if stressed


  • Blue-Green Algae
  • Symptoms:  Acute death within minutes.  Colic, bloody diarrhea, tremors, vomit, seizures, death.  “Bloom”  occurs in late summer during periods of extended heat.  Usually see fish kill first.

blu blue green algae

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